Quality was checked in 2003 by reviewing a random 2% sample of the data recorded in each ICU. This was done by intensivists from other ICUs. Interrater correlation coefficients ranged from 0.67 to 1 for clinical variables and for severity and organ dysfunction scores; к coefficients for qualitative variables ranged from 0.5 to 0.9.
Suspected VAP was defined as the development of persistent pulmonary infiltrates shown on the chest radiograph in combination with purulent tracheal secretions and/or body temperature > 38.5°C or < 36.5°C, and/or peripheral blood leukocyte count > 10 X 109/L or < 4 X 109/L. All patients with suspected VAP underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy with protected specimen brush and/or BAL or single-sheathed blind plugged telescopic catheter specimen collection before receiving antimicrobial therapy. Confirmed early onset pneumonia was defined as a positive protected specimen brush result (> 103 cfu/mL), a positive plugged telescopic catheter result (> 103 cfu/mL), or a positive BAL fluid result (> 104 cfu/mL). buy birth control online
An exposed patient was defined as having Candida colonization of the respiratory tract while receiving MV. Unexposed patients did not have Candida colonization of the respiratory tract. They were matched to exposed patients on year of admission and centers. In addition, an unexposed patient had to have MV duration at least as long as the precolonization MV duration in the exposed patient. Matching was done using a macro procedure with statistical software (SAS Institute; Cary, NC) [http://www. outcomerea.org/ehtm/matchmacro.pdf].
The characteristics of patients with and without respiratory Candida colonization were described using the median and quartiles for continuous variables. To determine the incidence of respiratory Candida colonization, we used the Kaplan-Meier method.