In summary, the hemodynamic properties ofcarvedilol include a reduction in systemic vascular resistance and blood pressure, without a decrease in cardiac output or a reflex increase in heart rate. These hemodynamic effects make carve-dilol more favourable than other beta-blockers in the management of heart failure.
Carvedilol lacks intrinsic sympathomimetic and membrane-stabilizing activity. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that, at concentrations that exceed those required for alpha and beta-blockade, carvedilol also possesses some calcium channel-blocking activity. The significance of this property remains unclear, but it is not thought to contribute to its antihypertensive effects. buy ortho tri-cyclen
One of the unique properties of carvedilol is its antioxidant effect, which may contribute to cardioprotective actions over and above those due to beta-blockade . Animal models using carvedilol have demonstrated a reduction in infarct size following ligation of coronary arteries greater than that seen with similar co-administration of propranolol . Other models demonstrate that carvedilol protects against proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and inhibits low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation (a factor responsible for the progression of atherosclerosis). Carvedilol has also been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation and glutamate-mediated damage in models of brain injury, similar to the effect of the 21-aminosteroid class of compounds (ie, tirilazad).