Category Archives: Cigarette Smoke

Identification of Cigarette Smoke Components: DISCUSSION(5)

In summary, our results show that at least five chemicals present in cigarette smoke solutions inhibit CBF in vitro; however, only cyanide was present in sufficiently high concentrations in smoke solutions to account for this inhibition. Cyanide solutions also inhibit OPR in a dose-dependent manner. Since inhibition of CBF by cyanide was completely reversible, it is unlikely that the effect is due to inhibition of … Continue reading

Identification of Cigarette Smoke Components: DISCUSSION(4)

Most studies on the ciliotoxic effects of whole cigarette smoke and its components have been done using cilia from the respiratory system or cilia from model organisms such as Paramecium and mussels. Little is known about the effects of smoke components on cilia and flagella in other organs in mammals. Human sperm in minichambers were rapidly immobilized by filtered or nonfiltered cigarette smoke; however, unlike … Continue reading

Identification of Cigarette Smoke Components: DISCUSSION(3)

The mechanism of action of cyanide on the oviductal cilia is not known. Acute cyanide toxicity occurs by irreversible inhibition of cytochrome oxidase aa3, which in turn shuts down oxygen utilization and ATP production. However, this is not the sole mechanism of action of cyanide on cells. Cyanide inhibits more than 40 enzymes and has numerous other effects on cells, many at the level of … Continue reading

Identification of Cigarette Smoke Components: DISCUSSION(2)

In addition to cyanide, other factors in cigarette smoke must affect OPR. Unlike inhibition of OPR by cyanide, which is reversible, inhibition of OPR by smoke solutions is irreversible, and OPR continues to decrease after washout of smoke solutions. The factor(s) involved in irreversible inhibition of OPR has not yet been identified but appears to decrease adhesion between the OCC and cilia. In the absence … Continue reading

Identification of Cigarette Smoke Components: DISCUSSION(1)

The goals of this study were to determine which components) in cigarette smoke solutions inhibits oviductal CBF and whether inhibition of beat frequency correlates with a reduction in OPR. All of the smoke solution components that were tested inhibited CBF in hamster oviductal explants in a dose-dependent manner. Their hierarchy of potency and their inhibitory concentrations for CBF were as follows: KCN (50 |xM) > … Continue reading

Identification of Cigarette Smoke Components: RESULTS(3)

Effect of KCN on OPR Only KCN was studied in the OPR experiments since cyanide was the only smoke component tested that was present in smoke solutions in high enough concentration to account for an effect on CBF. The following experimental design was used. Infundibula were first incubated in EBSS-HA, challenged with one of three doses of KCN, then allowed to recover in EBSS-HA after … Continue reading

Identification of Cigarette Smoke Components: RESULTS(2)

CBF was significantly inhibited by 10 mM phenol (p < 0.01), but not by lower doses, as compared to control CBF (Fig. 3). Washout restored beat frequency to control values. Smoke solutions have phenol concentrations ranging from 284 to 547 |xM (Table 1). The concentrations of phenol in smoke solutions are 17-35 times lower than the concentration needed to inhibit CBF.

Identification of Cigarette Smoke Components: RESULTS(1)

Effect of Individual Smoke Constituents on CBF For each infundibulum, CBF was first recorded in control medium (EBSS-H); then the lowest concentration of test solution was introduced into the perfusion chamber, and beat frequency was again recorded. This procedure was continued using the next increasing concentration of test solution until all concentrations had been tested. The chamber was then flushed with EBSS-H alone (washout) to … Continue reading

Identification of Cigarette Smoke Components: MATERIALS AND METHODS(8)

The┬áchamber was then flushed with one of three concentrations of KCN, and OPR was monitored after 10-, 25-, and 40-min intervals. KCN solutions were then washed out by perfusion of the culture dish with EBSS-HA, and pick-up rates were again determined after 10 min. In control experiments, chambers were flushed with either EBSS-HA only to test for an effect due to perfusion or with KC1 … Continue reading

Identification of Cigarette Smoke Components: MATERIALS AND METHODS(7)

Baseline ciliary beating was logged for 30 sec using the brightness-versus-time routine of the image-processing software. The lowest concentration of the particular chemical under test was then perfused at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a Buchler (Saddle Brook, NJ) multistatic pump. Seven min were found to be adequate for complete replacement of the fluid within the chamber. After an additional 5-min incubation, 30 … Continue reading