Category Archives: Pulmonary Function

Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Diseases: Summary

In a similar study,29 the local or systemic gene transfer of IFN-7 significantly inhibited allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Another potential area for gene therapy might be in patients with steroid-resistant asthma. A study30 has shown that the transfer of the glucocorticoid receptor gene in vitro mediated the inhibition of nuclear factor-кВ activities even in absence of exogenous corticosteroids, and the authors suggested that this approach could … Continue reading

Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Diseases: COPD and Asthma

a1-antitrypsin deficiency is a second pulmonary disease with an underlying single gene defect and a target for gene therapy. It is still unclear whether the replacement of a1-antitrypsin in patients with emphysema affects the course of the disease. Most attempts at gene replacement have been unsuccessful because of the short-term expression and the high concentrations of protein required for therapeutic efficacy.23 Recently, however, using a … Continue reading

Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Diseases: CF

Since the discovery of the CF transmembrane receptor (CFTR) gene in 1987, CF has been considered the major lung disease for intervention through gene therapy. To date, > 10 clinical trials have been reported without showing a convincing restoration of function. Several reasons can be considered for this failure. (1) The ideal vector system has not yet been developed. Adenoviral vectors, AAV, and liposomes have … Continue reading

Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Diseases: Research

As described for the adenovirus, some developments have involved several isoforms of the human AAV (ie, AAV2, AAV5, and AAV6), with AAV5 being more efficiently taken up by epithelial cells than AAV2. Moreover, there are other species of AAV that have recently been described such as a nonhuman primate isotype rh10, all of which allow isotype switching to avoid immune blocking and readministration to further … Continue reading

Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Diseases: Development

Liposomes are attractive, as by themselves liposomes appear to be nonimmunogenic. However, when used in gene therapy (ie, with plasmids inside), they generate a significant immune response, probably triggered by the CpG sequences in the vector, and while repeated delivery is feasible, the overall efficiency of transgene expression is low.- Newer attempts to improve nonviral transfer systems have included the use of glycoconjugates and polyplexes, … Continue reading

Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Diseases

Gene therapy, the replacement of defective or absent genes within the cell, or gene therapeutics, the use of transient administration of genes to affect function or modulate responses, are approaches to the treatment of pulmonary diseases that are gaining credibility. Cystic fibrosis (CF) and a1-antitrypsin deficiency are diseases that are associated with single gene defects and represent the obvious rationale for gene therapy of replacing … Continue reading

Evidence of Innervation in Talc-Induced Pleural Adhesions: Recommendation

These findings concur essentially with those of previous studies addressing this issue, since new blood vessel formation has been reported in human and animal pleural adhesions, as well as in human and animal peritoneal adhesions. In any event, the pivotal role of angiogenesis in the production of pleurodesis was clearly demonstrated by Guo et al who, by inhibiting angiogenesis with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, … Continue reading

Evidence of Innervation in Talc-Induced Pleural Adhesions: Conclusion

Likewise, it has been reported that the growth of nerve fibers into peritoneal adhesions is dependent on the underlying disease. Thus, it has been shown that peritoneal adhesions from patients with malignant diseases are more likely to contain nerves than adhesions due to other conditions, including inflammatory and noninflammatory diseases. In all adhesions examined here, nerve fibers appeared to originate from the parietal pleura, which … Continue reading

Evidence of Innervation in Talc-Induced Pleural Adhesions: Discussion

Classically, pleural adhesions are considered to be collagenous formations binding between visceral and parietal pleura. They are thought to develop in the pleural cavity secondary to several inflammatory stimuli, including infection, malignancy, and trauma. Although they are commonly considered to play a critical role in the establishment of pleural symphysis, little is known about their histopatho-genesis. The present study provides a detailed morphologic and ultrastructural … Continue reading

Evidence of Innervation in Talc-Induced Pleural Adhesions: Neovascularization

As mentioned above, all the adhesions examined were well vascularized and contained both blood and lymphatic vessels (Fig 3, top, A, and center, B). Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis were early events, occurring in the first week after talc instillation. By means of immunolocalization of the endothelial cell marker PECAM-1, sprouting angiogene-sis was detected and blood vessels were observed stemming from both bases of the adhesions (Fig … Continue reading