Simulation of Intracellular Water Volume Flux during Cooling and Warming
Fundamental cryobiology is an essential tool in determining optimal methods for boar spermatozoa cryopreservation. Recently there has been discussion in the literature questioning the applicability of fundamental cryobiology to sperm cryopreservation . This concern has focused on the apparent discrepancies between predicted theoretical approaches, based upon fundamental cryobiological parameters (e.g., membrane permeability characteristics and activation energy), and current empirical data. flovent inhaler
Although these previous discrepancies have been evident, they have not been due to the use of fundamental cryobiology but rather to a lack of available information. The human spermato-zoan is an example of a cell type for which historically, theoretical data have not been viewed as empirically applicable. During some of the first investigations into the fundamental cryobiology of human spermatozoa , parameters were derived (e.g., water permeability) that, when used to determine cooling and warming rates, were not supported by empirical data . However, as the fundamental cryobiological investigations continued with this cell type, the discrepancy between theoretical predictions and experimental results became minimal. Gilmore et al. reported data regarding the water permeability of human spermatozoa in the presence of CPAs and the ways in which these values differ from those previously reported.