AB bacteremia was defined as the isolation of AB in one or more cultures of blood specimens in association with clinical features of sepsis. COPD was diagnosed using the standard criteria recommended by the American Thoracic Society. An ever-smoker was defined as a current or former smoker. Other lung diseases included bronchiectasis, asthma, lung fibrosis, and old pulmonary tuberculosis. Standard definitions of ARDS, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), septic shock were employed throughout this study. Hyperglycemia was defined as a spot glucose concentration of > 11 mmol/L. The initial antibiotic therapy for the episode of AB pneumonia comprised agents that were administered in the first 12 h. The therapy was considered to be appropriate if in vitro susceptibility was confirmed (or inferred) by laboratory testing results. Resistance to macrolides was assumed for all of the AB isolates. Therapy was considered to be inappropriate if the isolate was susceptible only to the aminoglycoside component. All microbiological specimens were obtained before the initiation of antibiotic therapy. buy claritin online
Data were expressed as the mean (SD) or the median (range) as appropriate unless otherwise specified. The x2 test or Fisher exact test was used to compare categoric variables between CAP-AB and HAP-AB groups where appropriate. The Student t test or the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables between the two groups, depending on the nature of the data. Life table analysis was performed to analyze the survival of CAP-AB patients. Potential risk factors for worse prognosis in the CAP-AB group were tested by log-rank test (categoric variables) or Cox regression (continuous variables). A two-tailed p value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using statistical software (SPSS, version 11.0; SPSS Inc; Chicago, IL).
There were 19 cases of CAP-AB and 74 cases of HAP-AB, of which 51 cases were VAP, during the 42-month study period.