Most studies on the ciliotoxic effects of whole cigarette smoke and its components have been done using cilia from the respiratory system or cilia from model organisms such as Paramecium and mussels. Little is known about the effects of smoke components on cilia and flagella in other organs in mammals. Human sperm in minichambers were rapidly immobilized by filtered or nonfiltered cigarette smoke; however, unlike the oviductal cilia, sperm flagella were not affected by cyanide. The middle ear contains cilia that function in mucus clearance. It was recently shown that the beat frequency of middle ear cilia is significantly reduced in smokers compared to non-smokers. This is an important observation showing that smoke inhalation can affect ciliary performance in organs other than the respiratory system. Our data show that oviductal cilia, like the middle ear cilia, are sensitive to smoke components including cyanide. However, it is not yet known whether CBF and OPR are inhibited by cigarette smoke components in vivo, nor is it known what concentrations of the tested smoke components are present in oviductal tissue in smokers. buy ortho tri-cyclen online
Although acrolein and formaldehyde were not present in smoke solutions in high enough concentrations to account for inhibition of CBF, both inhibited CBF irreversibly at high doses. Our study does not address the effects of chronic exposure to low levels of acrolein or formaldehyde; however, should chronic exposure decrease CBF, our data indicate that such an effect would not be readily reversible.