Phenol was assayed using a method based upon the in-dophenol reaction. To 1 ml of standards (3-9 |a.M phenol) and cigarette smoke samples in 25-cm glass tubes was added 500 jjlI 0.01% ammonium chloride. After mixing, 1 ml of 0.03% sodium nitroprusside was added to each tube and mixed. One milliliter of 7V-chlorosuccinimide-succi-nimide reagent (made by dissolving 25 mg of succinimide and 60 mg of 7V-chlorosuccimide in 50 ml dH20) was added to each tube. Each sample was immediately diluted to 10 ml with 3 N NaOH. After 10 min, the absorbances were read at 670 nm. The phenol content of the cigarette smoke solutions was determined from the standard curve. buy prednisone
Effect of Chemical Compounds on Ciliary Beat Frequency
Adult female hamsters were killed on the morning of Day 4 of their estrous cycle using C02 gas. The infundibula were excised, washed in EBSS-H, and anchored with a holding micropipette in an EBSS-H-filled Falcon organ culture dish modified for perfusion. The dissection protocol and design of the open perfusion chamber used to analyze the CBF of hamster infundibula have been described previously. Infundibula were observed with a X40 differential interference contrast objective on a Nikon Diaphot inverted light microscope (Nikon Instruments, Garden City, NY) equipped with an MTI (MTI-Dage, Michigan City, IN) video camera. Video images of the beating cilia were sent to a Sony (Tokyo, Japan) video monitor and analyzed with a Microsoft DOS-based image acquisition and analysis system (Image 1; Universal Imaging Corp., West Chester, PA) running on an Intel 386 microcomputer.