The oviduct plays two critical roles in mammalian reproduction. It functions in pick-up and transport of the gametes, and it provides a suitable milieu for fertilization and preimplantation development. In hamsters, the outer surface of the infundibulum is covered mainly by ciliated cells. After ovulation, these ciliated cells pick up the oocyte cumulus complex (OCC) and transfer it to the ampulla, where fertilization occurs. buy ortho tri-cyclen online
The oviduct is a target of cigarette smoke and its components. Nicotine alters tubal motility in Rhesus monkeys and alters blood flow to the oviduct of rats. Inhalation of mainstream or sidestream smoke by hamsters produces a small but significant increase in the ratio of secretory/ciliated cells lining the infundibulum. Mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette-smoke solutions inhibit ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of hamster oviducts in a dose-dependent manner during acute in vitro exposure. This inhibition is reversed or partially reversed when smoke solutions are replaced with control medium. OCC pick-up rate (OPR), which can be quantified in vitro using hamster infundibular explants, also decreases during in vitro exposure to both MS and SS smoke solutions. The inhibition of OPR by smoke solutions is probably due in part to an effect on CBF. However, unlike CBF, OPR does not recover after washout of smoke solutions, suggesting that the mechanism of action of smoke solutions on the oviduct involves more than just inhibition of CBF.