Prevalence and Correlates of Respiratory Symptoms and Disease in the Elderly: Predictors of Lung Disease

Prevalence and Correlates of Respiratory Symptoms and Disease in the Elderly: Predictors of Lung DiseaseThose who were more educated were somewhat less likely to report dyspnea. Coronary artery disease and left heart failure were major factors associated with DOE. Attacks of wheezing with dyspnea were also strongly associated with DOE. It is likely that the cause of these wheezing attacks includes both obstructive lung diseases, left heart failure, and obesity.
The predictors of physician-confirmed emphysema in elderly persons have all been previously described in younger cohorts (Table 5). It requires many pack-years of cigarette smoking before it becomes apparent, and it is associated with (and frequently diagnosed by) airflow limitation as shown by a low FEVi/FVC ratio. Symptoms of emphysema include shortness of breath on exertion, attacks of dyspnea with wheezing, and weight loss. Chronic cough and chronic phlegm, although considered common symptoms of emphysema, were not independently associated with a diagnosis of emphysema in our cohort once the other symptoms were accounted for.
Chronic bronchitis is also a common smoking-related lung disease fully buy ventolin inhaler. The accepted definition is based solely on a history of chronic cough and sputum production. A low FEVi, indicating airflow limitation, and heavy smoking (more than 20 cigarettes per day), were strongly associated with this diagnosis. While bivariate analysis (Table 5) shows that elderly persons with attacks of wheezing with dyspnea are eight times as likely to have this diagnosis than those without this symptom, there was no independent association with chronic cough and phlegm in the logistic regression model (Table 5), where gender, the degree of airflow limitation, and amount of smoking were taken into consideration. After controlling for those factors, the chance of having a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis was also influenced by geographic locale (clinic site) and amount of education.

This entry was posted in Pulmonary Function and tagged abnormality rates, elderly, respiratory symptoms.