Those with chronic cough or lower income were also more likely to have undiagnosed airways obstruction. Although the overall prevalence of undiagnosed airways obstruction was similar for men and women (7.7 percent vs 7.4 percent, respectively), women were twice as likely to have undiagnosed airways obstruction when smoking history was taken into account by the multivariate model. Height was of borderline significance in this model. The presence of CHD or CHF was not a significant predictor of obstruction. We also reanalyzed this model not excluding participants with physician diagnoses of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. The only odds ratios (ORs) to change substantially were those for current smoking (OR=2.7) and chronic cough (OR=2.33).
The CHS cohort provides a very large population sample of elderly persons with comprehensive measures of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease and risk factors, as well as spirometry. The age and gender composition of the cohort is very similar to that of the US population aged 65 years and older Here buying antibiotics online. The four communities are geographically diverse and include both urban and rural areas. Non whites, lower socioeconomic groups, and those with diseases that limit their mobility, however, are underrepresented. A recent sample of the population of northern Sweden allows close comparisons since the investigators used the same questions and separately reported prevalence rates for subjects with a mean age of 65 years. Our cohort reported similar rates of chronic cough, but much lower rates of chronic phlegm and attacks of wheezing with dyspnea. Our respiratory symptom rates are generally lower than those of adults in Tucson, Ariz and the state of Michigan (Table 6). Differences in gender, smoking status, and age distribution likely account for the reported differences in symptom prevalence. A diagnosis of asthma was reported by 6 percent of our elderly participants, similar to the prevalence reported by those in Sweden and the Tucson adults, but a higher rate than reported in Michigan and Po River Valley adults.
Table 6—Comparison of CHS Prevalence Rates With Other Population Studies
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