Prevalence and Correlates of Respiratory Symptoms and Disease in the Elderly

Prevalence and Correlates of Respiratory Symptoms and Disease in the ElderlyLung diseases are a major cause of illness, disability, and death among those 65 years of age and older. Accurate information on the prevalence of lung disease among older adults is needed for medical and public health planning purposes. The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) is a multicenter, prospective study of cardiovascular risk factors in persons 65 years and older. Spirometry testing and questions regarding respiratory disease are included in cardiovascular epidemiology studies such as the CHS because the FEVi is an excellent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Many previous epidemiologic studies of lung disease in the United States either did not include a population sample of elderly subjects or did not separately report the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diagnoses in those older than 65 years. Studies performed before 1970 studied a population whose exposures to childhood respiratory diseases and workplace exposures were different from those experienced by the current cohort of elderly people add comment viagra super active plus.
The 1989 to 1990 CHS baseline examination provided standardized questionnaire and spirometry results from a representative sample of 5,201 elderly persons from four US communities. In addition to providing prevalence rates for major respiratory symptoms and lung diseases from this cohort by smoking status, we identified the correlates of respiratory conditions using multivariate models.
Participants in the CHS were selected using a Medicare eligibility list provided by the US Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) for the four participating communities. These communities are Forsyth County, NC; Pittsburgh, Pa; Sacramento County, Calif; and Washington County, Md. Potential participants were randomly sampled from the four communities to fill eight subgroups, stratified by age and sex. The study also attempted to recruit all age-eligible persons in the household of the sampled individual (usually a spouse).

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